Litter in public spaces costs the government around SFr200 million ($232 million) a year, a study has shown for the first time in Switzerland.
The Federal Environment Office has calculated the exact cost of picking up the empty bottles, take away cartons, free newspapers and cigarette butts across the country. Previously there were only estimates.
Around SFr150 million is spent collecting litter in public spaces and SFr50 million on rubbish left on public transport. Litter is left around railway stations, festival and party areas and picnic spots.
The costs are borne by taxpayers and public transport users.
The study will be used as a basis for discussion on the issue by district authorities and packaging manufacturers. Round tables have taken place on littering every year since 2008.
swissinfo.ch and agencies