By Caroline Stauffer
CHARAGUA, Bolivia (Reuters) - In 12 years as president of South America's poorest country, Evo Morales has accomplished many of the goals he set forth when he became the first indigenous person to lead Bolivia.
The 58-year-old leftist and former coca farmer has presided over an economy that has grown by an annual average of 4.6 percent since he took office, more than twice the rate for all of Latin America.
After nationalizing the country's bounteous natural gas reserves, he pursued market-friendly economic policies and invested export revenue in social programs that helped lift more than two million people, nearly a fifth of the population, from poverty.
With a new constitution in 2009, he even changed the name of the country from the Republic of Bolivia to the Plurinational State of Bolivia, reflecting diverse ethnicities that for centuries had felt like second-class citizens.
For Bolivia's more than 4 million indigenous people, support for Morales appeared to pay off. The poverty rate dropped from 59.9 percent in 2006 to 36.4 percent last year. Access for indigenous communities to electricity, sewerage and water service all grew, according to the World Bank.
Here in Charagua, in the country's remote southern lowlands, Guarani people recently dissolved the local municipality and launched Bolivia's first experiment in autonomous government. The move, made possible by the new constitution, is meant to replace distant, homogenous rule with policies tailored to the local, indigenous reality.
Yet here and across Bolivia, indigenous people are increasingly turning against Evo, as the poncho-wearing Morales is known. The dissatisfaction – over everything from proposed development of indigenous lands to his successful gambit to end term limits – is marring what had been widespread acclaim for a leader emblematic to first peoples' movements worldwide.
"His way of thinking and his actions aren't indigenous," said Gualberto Cusi, a former judge and ethnic Aymara, an influential Andean tribe from which Morales himself also hails. Cusi, who was barred from the Constitutional Court by Congress last year after disagreements with the government, now leads a group of indigenous dissidents.
Many Aymara have flourished under Morales' rule. Building upon a long history selling textiles along Lake Titicaca, they now thrive in commerce, like importing Chinese electronics they sell as far afield as the Amazon rainforest. But even they are increasingly fed up.
"He should go," said Joaquin Quispe, a cook whose Aymara family moved from Bolivia's interior to El Alto, a city where a swelling indigenous influx in recent years made it outgrow nearby La Paz, the country's administrative centre.
What particularly bothers some are moves by Morales, using supporters in Congress and the judiciary, to consolidate power.
Although his own 2009 constitution set a limit of two five-year terms, Morales asked voters in a 2016 referendum to let him run again in 2019.
When they said no, Morales convinced the Constitutional Court to let him anyway. The court, consisting of jurists nominated by Congressional allies, ruled that term limits are a violation of his "human rights."
Morales' spokeswoman, Gisela Lopez, declined to make the president available for an interview and didn't respond to requests for comment for this story. A close ally, former Senate President Jose "Gringo" Gonzales, said Morales hasn't abandoned indigenous peoples, but has evolved as president to represent and work with everyone.
"He can sit for one minute with a businessman and the next with a worker," said Gonzales, who stepped down from the Senate last week for undisclosed reasons. "He still has the humility and simplicity that were highlighted when he took office."
Morales is now the longest consecutively serving head of state in the Americas. He is the sole leader remaining from a wave of leftists, including Venezuela's Hugo Chavez and Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva of Brazil, who dominated Latin American politics early this century.
His name, which graces schools, stadiums, and cultural centres, is increasingly voiced in street protests and scrawled in graffiti. All over the divided country, "Bolivia said no!" sprayings compete with "Evo Yes!" signs painted by supporters of his party, Movement Toward Socialism, or MAS.
Morales won't go before voters again until late next year. And the opposition remains fragmented, meaning no other leader in Bolivia as yet compares in political stature.
Still, in a July poll commissioned by newspaper Pagina Siete, support for the president among likely voters fell to 27 percent from 31 percent last November. A survey by pollster Ipsos this week showed a similar level of support, at 29 percent of likely voters, with a six-point drop over the past year in his approval rating, now at 43 percent.
Over the past eight months, Reuters travelled across Bolivia to better understand the waning support for the president among indigenous peoples. From his native Altiplano, the high, arid plateau home to the Aymara, to gas-rich lowlands, where the government has authorized extraction on indigenous lands, many native Bolivians say they no longer feel represented by Morales.
"A NEW ERA"
For many, the years following Morales's 2005 election were marked by jubilation and hope.
Before his official inauguration in January 2006, Aymara "maestros," or ritual leaders, held their own ceremony at the pre-Incan site of Tiwanaku, west of La Paz. Morales, in a traditional red tunic, climbed the Akapana pyramid, where shamans presided over a fire ritual and presented him with a staff symbolizing his right to lead the assembled tribes.
"Today begins a new era for the native peoples of the world," Morales said. Tens of thousands of indigenous activists, along with native delegations from as far away as Chile and the United States, cheered.
Within months, he began asserting his plans to "decolonize" Bolivia and give locals more voice in government and a greater share of national wealth. On May 1, Labor Day, he ordered troops to occupy natural gas fields and nationalized all hydrocarbons.
"The time has come, the longed-for day, a historic day for Bolivia to retake absolute control of our natural resources," he said in a speech while surrounded by soldiers at an oil field operated by Petroleo Brasileiro, or Petrobras, the Brazilian energy company.
Morales began renegotiating energy contracts for a bigger share of the profits, a move that ultimately many companies agreed to. The negotiations earned him plaudits from supporters and boosted government revenues at a time when gas prices were soaring.
With the windfalls, Morales enacted measures including school vouchers for kids and pensions for workers who had never held formal employment.
For the day-to-day business of governance, Morales appointed women, indigenous peoples and labour leaders to his cabinet. He embraced grass-roots organizations and forged a so-called "Unity Pact," comprising leaders of Andean, lowland and Amazon tribes. Together, they helped draft the new constitution, approved by 60 percent of Bolivians in a 2009 referendum.
That year, in a landslide, Morales won a second term.
Tensions with indigenous groups first emerged in 2011.
Enjoying what by then was steadily improving economic growth, Morales proposed a 300-kilometer road through the Isiboro Secure Indigenous Territory, or Tipnis, a Jamaica-sized refuge in the Amazon. The highway, Morales argued, was necessary to bring basic services to remote tribes.
But native groups and environmentalists were enraged.
The road, they argued, more likely would facilitate drug trafficking, illegal logging and other unwanted activity. Protesters marched for more than a month, during which police and demonstrators clashed in clouds of tear gas and flurries of rubber bullets.
"When Evo took office we thought indigenous people would never have to march again," said Adolfo Chavez, a native Tacana and former president of The Confederation of Indigenous People of Bolivia, or Cidob, a grouping of 34 lowland tribes.
The marching succeeded, at least for a time. That September, Morales halted work on the road for further study.
But relations with some native groups were damaged.
Two major indigenous rights organizations, Cidob and The National Council of Ayllus and Markas of Qullasuyu, left the Unity Pact. Since then, the split has widened into divisions that fall along political lines, not rivalries among Bolivia's three dozen ethnicities.
Soon, government supporters began to pressure both groups, using MAS loyalists to stage what some members described as coups within the organizations. Politics and loyalty to Morales began to matter more than the indigenous cause, they said. Cidob leader Chavez was voted out in 2012.
Chavez, who left Bolivia and now lives in Peru, says he was a victim of political persecution for leading the Tipnis demonstrations. Pedro Vare, Cidob's current leader, in local media has continued to back Morales and criticise the protesters. Reuters was unable to reach Vare for an interview.
One rainy evening in December 2013, MAS activists broke down the door of the two-story La Paz headquarters of Conamaq, as the other indigenous rights group is known. Once inside, they forced members, some of whom were visiting La Paz from remote regions and living there during their stay, to leave.
"We had nowhere to go," recalls Cristobal Salles, an Aymara and Quechua speaker who was a Conamaq councilman and now farms potatoes.
Dissent at both groups vanished.
Hilarion Mamani, a 41-year-old Quechua who led the Conamaq takeover, told Reuters a purge had been necessary. Using a charge long wielded against opponents by some leftists in Latin America, Mamani said previous leaders were acting on behalf of "North American imperialists." Now, he added, "there are no divisions."
That's because most of the previous members went on to form dissident indigenous groups. Those groups have campaigned to enforce presidential term limits and against renewed efforts to build the Tipnis road and other projects on native lands.
In 2014, Morales began his sustained effort to stay in power.
Despite the constitutional limit of two terms, Morales argued that his first administration shouldn't be counted because he had been elected under a previous constitution. In the Constitutional Court, by then composed mostly of judges nominated by allies of Morales in Congress, he found a sympathetic audience.
Except for one justice – Cusi, the fellow Aymara who at that time sat on the court. Cusi sought a strict interpretation of the charter and argued against another term.
But the other judges prevailed. Morales ran for re-election and, with 60 percent of the vote, won a third term starting in January 2015.
Before long, relations with native groups grew worse still.
In February 2015, a government comptroller discovered a $10 million (£7.7 million) shortfall in a state fund for indigenous projects, finding records of initiatives that had been funded, but never carried out. Two of Morales' former rural development ministers were convicted of misusing public funds and served brief jail terms.
Some onetime Morales supporters were outraged. "It seems corruption has been institutionalized," Edwin Prada, a lawyer and former advisor to Conamaq, said in an interview.
Morales in public comments has said the fund was poorly run. Reuters couldn't reach either of the two former ministers for comment.
That year, natural gas prices fell from a peak in 2014. The country's economy, while still healthier than that of many neighbours, cooled.
Criticism of Morales and his party grew.
"LORD KING EVO MORALES"
In March 2015, residents of El Alto, formerly a bastion of Morales support, handed MAS its first big electoral defeat. They voted out the city's MAS mayor, who had polarized local voters because of municipal spending, and elected Soledad Chapeton, an Aymara from a centre-right party who became the city's first female mayor.
Morales, meanwhile, kept working to prolong his own mandate – first through the failed referendum and then through another plea to the Constitutional Court. By last year, the court was firmly allied with Morales.
After opposing other government initiatives, Cusi, the Aymara judge, was impeached by the Senate. The day before the May 2017 ruling, Cusi donned chains in front of government headquarters and scoffed at what he considered his foregone ouster.
"Lord King Evo Morales," he said before television cameras, "order your puppet senators to condemn me."
Officially, Cusi was accused of failing to fulfil duties. But many government critics called his removal political.
"They found a pretext to oust me," Cusi told Reuters. Now the head of a Conamaq breakaway group, Cusi recently announced he would seek the office of attorney general.
With the go-ahead to pursue a fourth term, Morales stoked even more ire.
Early last year, students at the Public University of El Alto, a bastion of political activism, began demonstrating for more educational funding. The ruling on term limits sparked further discontent, fuelling demonstrations that continued into this year.
In a clash with police, one student died. Police said the student, Jonathan Quispe, was killed when students hurled marbles. University officials said he was shot by police. Reuters couldn't independently determine what led to Quispe's death.
Last August, Congress approved a project to restart the Tipnis highway. Other construction projects are also drawing fire.
At a cost to taxpayers of $7 million, Morales last year inaugurated a three-wing museum with large modern windows in Orinoca, the remote Altiplano town where he grew up herding llamas. The "Museum of the Democratic and Cultural Revolution" tells Bolivia's recent history through Morales' own achievements.
This month, Morales presided over the opening of a new 28-floor presidential palace in La Paz. He calls the $34 million building "the big house of the people."
The projects, some critics say, are further proof Morales lost touch. "He always said he would consult the people," said Salles, the former Conamaq leader. "Now he doesn't."
In Charagua, the lowland Guarani region, residents are struggling with autonomy. One recent afternoon, locals at a school auditorium hashed through problems now plaguing their experiment, the first of three autonomous regions approved by voters recently.
Charagua, roughly the size of Panama, in the 1930s was the site of successful resistance against Paraguayan invaders who sought to seize area gas reserves. Despite having gas, however, Charagua remains poor, accessible only by dirt roads.
The regional budget, financed in part by La Paz, remains the roughly $4.5 million it was before autonomy. But locals say the national government has all but abandoned them otherwise.
"We are worse than before," said one resident who identified himself as Victor before storming out of the auditorium. "I want a recall on this autonomy."
Reuters was unable to reach the Morales cabinet official in charge of indigenous autonomy.
Guarani leaders there said they, too, are unhappy. Ramiro Lucas, a 44-year-old leader of a southern portion of Charagua, lamented that the region recently had to halt school breakfasts because money was needed for health centres.
"Now we have land, but what good is that if we don't have resources?" he told Reuters.
(Editing by Paulo Prada)