Women were more likely than men to vote in favour of a recent initiative on restricting access to firearms.
The initiative, which went to a nationwide ballot in February, sought to ban army-issue guns from being kept in the home, but was rejected by 56 per cent of votes.
The Vox Analysis follow-up study conducted by the political science department of Geneva University says in its assessment that the vote was backed by 51 per cent of women and 37 per cent of men.
The study issued on Friday found that the outcome was strongly influenced by gun societies - 90 per cent of members keeping a gun at home voted against the initiative.
The initiative was also opposed by rightwing voters who want to see Switzerland less open to foreign influences.
Social factors were another factor, with older people and those with a lower level of education more likely to vote against.
Social Democrats and environmentalists largely supported a ban, but they did not turn out to vote in such large numbers as those who opposed it.
The assessment was based on telephone interviews with 1,503 people all over Switzerland. The margin of error is about 2.4 per cent.
swissinfo.ch and agencies