In 2002, Givaudan researcher Roman Kaiser led a team of scientists to Madagascar's Masaola Peninsula in search of new natural fragrances. While work was taking place on the ground, the jungle canopy was also being scrutinised from a hot air balloon carrying a treetop raft. (Pictures: Givaudan)
Looking for samples can be hair-raising work, with scientists sometimes forced to climb high to reach some plants.
A cinnamon plant with bright red leaves.
Local knowledge is essential when looking for or understanding new and rare plants.
Finding that enticing new fragrance is often a team effort that requires plenty of patience.
Some plants are collected for later analysis and description back in the laboratory.
Roman Kaiser often collects samples though by analysing the so-called headspace surrounding a flower and leaving it untouched.
Samples undergo initial analysis in the field rather than wait until returning to the laboratory in Europe.
Researchers go searching for new smells in Madagascar's jungle.