The West woke up to what was happening in the Balkans when Serb forces began to bombard the old Croatian seaside city of Dubrovnik in late autumn 1991. More than 2,000 shells fell inside the walls of the UNESCO-listed old town during the war.
On October 1, 1991, telephone and power lines as well as water supplies were cut off. Offshore, Serb warships blocked all access to the city. The worst fighting took place on December 6, when the surrounding forces launched around 600 grenades into the old town to force locals to flee. In early 1992, fierce fighting once again flared up as the Serbs tried to stop the Croatians from claiming independence.
(All pictures: Thomas Kern)